Gardening: Putting the garden to bed

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Early autumn is a great time to work in the garden, and it's not too early to start putting your garden to bed. I can work early in the morning without layers of wool, and my hands don't need gloves to stay warm. Too often we gardeners wait until later, when frost is on the garden, to clean up. Start now, do a little each day, and the job will not be onerous.

Start by removing anything that is ugly. Your bleeding hearts (Dicentra spectablilis) has foliage that is yellow and has collapsed. Cut it out! Peonies may have dark blotches on the leaves — a potential sign of a fungal disease called botrytis — and should be removed.

Anything that looks like it is diseased should not go in the compost pile, but in the household trash or on a burn pile for winter. Be sure to cut right to the ground when removing foliage. Yes, you have to bend down a little lower, but the close to the ground, the better. That way you will be more likely to remove any diseased portions, and it will look better in the spring.

I know many gardeners like hand pruners to remove foliage, but I find that a bit tedious. I like a serrated knife. I hold a handful of tops, and with one swipe of my knife I cut through it all. The same group of stems might take a dozen snips. I'm all for speed and efficiency when working in the garden.

Other techniques? Hedge shears will make quick work of a big clump of iris leaves. But make sure they are sharp. Modern electric hedge clippers work, too, but I have been known to cut off the cord. Be sure to plug into one of those special outlets with reset buttons (GFCI) if you using electric hedge clippers — they'll save you from getting electrocuted!

I have one 50 foot bed that is eight to 10 feet wide. I call it my Darwin bed, as plants compete for space. No weeding. It's full of tall plants like Joe Pye weed, turtlehead, phlox and more (including goldenrod for the pollinators). In late October, but before snow, I will run over the entire bed with a riding lawn mower, blade all the way up, engine racing at full throttle. It works!

You may wish to leave some flowers for the birds. Nice seed pods on purple cone flowers and black-eyed Susans will please the finches in winter, and look great above a thin layer of snow. Decorative grasses will sway in the winter wind, and look good for at least a month or two. You can always clean them up in the spring, or during a winter thaw if so inclined (and wearing wool).

As you cut back your perennials you will notice some volunteer plants. Phlox is forever planting itself around my garden, as is great blue lobelia and (dis-) obedient plant. It is natural to say, "Oh, how nice, the phlox is spreading." But do I really want more phlox? No, if I did want more, I would have planted more. I'd really like a new color, not more of the same. So I'll dig it up and put it at the end of the driveway in a throwaway plastic pot. "FREE" will stop traffic.

As you cut back, weed! That will require different body motions — and fewer aches and pains. You probably already know some weeds by name, and by root. Some are perennials or biennials with deep tap roots. Others have lateral roots with nodes that send up more weeds. Annual weeds pull up with little effort and have small roots - but thousands of seeds. Try not to shake out seeds from weeds that have bloomed and set seeds. They will be back to annoy you for years to come.

I bring two tools with me for weeding: a garden fork and a CobraHead weeder. The fork is great for deep-rooted weeds. I plunge it in or step on it to force it into hard soil, then tip it back, loosening the soil. The weed, along with the deep root, will come right out, particularly if the soil is moist.

The CobraHead weeder has a single curved tine with a widened tip. It has become an essential tool for me; it's like a curved finger. I use it to get under a weed. It allows me to lift and loosen soil beneath a weed while I tug on the top. If there are lateral roots, I tease them out, tugging and loosening until I have the entire darn thing.

Nothing beats crawling on your hands and knees for finding weeds. You are at their level. But if it's hard for you to get back up, maybe you'd like to sit on something, particularly if the soil is cold and wet. I sometimes use a five-gallon pail, but have seen some nice kneeling seats designed for gardeners, and have heard nice things about them. But to each her own.

Mulching? That can be the last step of fall clean up. Finely ground bark mulch or chipped leaves can be good for keeping down weeds, but don't use too much. And try to keep it back from the crown, or center growing area of the plant. You can ruin peony's ability to bloom by covering it with three inches of bark mulch. And avoid buying bagged mulch that is "color enhanced." It has chemicals in it.

Me? I like flower gardens that have big clumps of perennials and lots of groundcover plants to cover bare spaces. That's what Mother Nature does. I don't like big swaths of bark mulch, though I use some in newer beds.

So go get to work on a nice day. It will save you time in the Spring.

Read Henry Homeyer's blog posts at https://dailyuv.com/gardeningguy You may e-mail him at henry.homeyer@comcast.net.

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